Melt spinning is the preferred method of
manufacture for polymeric fibers. The polymer is melted and
pumped through a spinneret (die) with numerous holes (one to thousands).
The molten fibers are cooled, solidified, and collected on a take-up
wheel. Stretching of the fibers in both the molten and solid
states provides for orientation of the polymer chains along the
fiber axis. Polymers such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) and
nylon 6,6 are melt spun in high volumes.
An excellent general reference on fiber spinning is:
A. Ziabicki, Fundamentals of Fiber Formation,
Wiley, New York (1976). ISBN 0471982202.
A classic article which emphasizes structure development during melt spinning is:
J.R. Dees and J.E. Spruiell, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 18, pp. 1053-1078 (1974).